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Vesicoureteral Reflux

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Vesicoureteral reflux is a condition in which there is an abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back up the ureters (tubes) that connect the kidney with the bladder. In normal bladder function, the urine flows down from the kidneys to the bladder. Vesicoureteral reflux is typically diagnosed in infants and young children, and can increase the risk of urinary tract infections. The condition has two types: primary and secondary. Primary vesicoureteral reflux in children results because of a defect in the valve that normally prevents urine from flowing backward from the bladder into the ureters. Secondary vesicoureteral reflux is a result of a urinary tract malfunction, often caused by an infection.


  • A strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria) or cloudy, strong-smelling urine
  • Fever
  • Abdominal or flank pain
  • Hesitancy to urinate or holding urine to avoid the burning sensation


  • A defect in the value that prevents urine from flowing back from the bladder up into the ureters
  • A urinary tract malfunction, often caused by an infection

For more information or to request an appointment, call 407.303.5781 or contact Florida Center for Pediatric Urology online.